Saturday, July 17, 2010

Black Dog, Osage Confederate Officer

From SLMN Blog:

17 July 2010Black Dog II: Osage Confederate officer

My friend Terry Warren, who is from the Osage nation, sent me this picture of a Confederate ancestor of his named Black Dog II (number 6 in the picture). He was the leader of the Osage division of the Cherokee Braves and a Confederate officer who fought at Pea Ridge and 30 or more battles besides that. The picture was probably taken around 1870 or so. Black Dog died in 1910.

Here is more information on the Confederate Indians, the only official allied nations the South ever had.

Posted by PalmettoPatriot at 6:13 PM
from Access Genealogy:
Osage Indian Tribe History Search For Your Ancestors:



Osage (corruption by French traders of Wazhazhe, their own name). The most important southern Siouan tribe of the western division. Dorsey classed them, under the name Dhegiha, in one group with the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, and Quapaw, with whom they are supposed to have originally constituted a single body living along the lower course of the Ohio river.

Geographically speaking, the tribe consists of three bands: the Pahatsi or Great Osage, Utsehta or Little Osage, and Santsukhdhi or Arkansas band. These appear to be comparatively modern, however, and the Osage recognize three more closely amalgamated divisions which seem, from the traditional account of them, to represent as many formerly independent tribes. According to this account, as gathered by J. O. Dorsey, the beings which ultimately became men originated in the lowest of the four upper worlds which Osage cosmology postulates and ascended to the highest where they obtained souls. Then they descended until they came to a red-oak tree on which the lowest world rests and by its branches reached our earth. They were divided into two sections, the Tsishu, or peace people, who kept to the left, living on roots, etc.; and the Wazhazhe (true Osage), or war people, who kept to the right and killed animals for their food. Later these two divisions exchanged commodities, and after some time the Tsishu people came into possession of four kinds of corn and four kinds of pumpkins, which fell from the left hind legs of as many different buffaloes. Still later the tribe came upon a very warlike people called Hangka-utadhantse, who lived on animals, and after a time the Tsishu people succeeded in making peace with them, when they were taken into the nation on the war side. Originally there were seven Tsishu gentes, seven Wazhazhe gentes, and seven Hangka gentes, but, in order to maintain an equilibrium between the war and peace sides after adopting the Hangka, the number of their gentes was reduced to five and the number of Wazhazhe gentes to two. In camping the Tsishu gentes are on the left or north side of the camping circle, and the Hangka or Wazhazhe gentes on the right or south side, the entrance to the circle being eastward. Beginning at this entrance the arrangement of gentes is as follows:

Tsishu gentes (from east to west):

l, Tsishusintsakdhe;



4, Tsishuwashtake;

5, Haninihkashina;

6, Tsetduka;

7, Kdhun.

Hangka gentes (from east to west):

8, Washashewanun;

9, Hangkautadhantsi;

10, Panhkawashtake;

11, Ilangkaahutun;

12, Wasapetun;

13, Cpkhan;

14, Kanse.

The gentile organization appears to have been very similar to that of the Omaha and other southern tribes of this division, involving paternal descent, prohibition of marriage in the gentes of both father and mother, and probably gentile taboos. The functions of the various gentes were also differentiated to a certain extent. Matters connected with war were usually undertaken by the war gentes and peace-making by the peace gentes, while it was the duty of the chief of the Tsishuwashtake gens to defend any foeman who might slip into the camp-circle and appeal to him for protection. The Tsishu gentes are also said to have had the care and naming of children. Heralds were chosen. from certain special gentes, and certain others monopolized the manufacture of moccasins, war standards, and war pipes. On the death of a head-chief the leading man called a council and named four candidates, from whom the final selection was made. Seven appears as a sacred number in the social organization of the Osage, but from the war and other customs of the tribe it appears that the sacred ceremonial number was usually four (Dorsey in Am. Nat., Feb. 1884).

The first historical notice of the Osage appears to be on Marquette's autograph map of 1673, which locates them apparently on Osage river, and there they are placed by all subsequent writers until their removal westward in the 19th century. Douay (1686) assigns them 17 villages, but these must have been nothing more than hunting camps, for Father Jacques Gravier, in a letter written in 1694 from the Illinois mission, speaks of but one, and later writers agree with his statement, though it must be understood as applying only to the Great Osage. Gravier interviewed two Osage and two Missouri chiefs who had come to make an alliance with the Illinois, and says of them: "The Osage and Missouri do not appear to be so quick witted as the Illinois; their language does not seem very difficult. The former do not open their lips and the latter speak still more from the throat than they" (Jes. Rel., lxiv, 171, 1900). Iberville in 1701 (Margry, Dec., iv, 599, 1880) mentions a tribe of 1,200 to 1,500 families living in the region of Arkansas river, near the Kansa and the Missouri, and, like these, speaking a language that he took to be Quapaw. The name of this tribe through errors in copying and printing became Crevas, but the description indicates the Osage. In 1714 they assisted the French in defeating the Foxes at Detroit. Although visits of traders were evidently quite common before 1719, the first official French visit appears to have been in that year by Du Tisné, who learned that their village on Osage river then contained 100 cabins and 200 warriors. The village of the Missouri was higher up, and a short distance south west of the latter was another Osage village which from later maps is shown to have been occupied by the Little Osage. Then, as always, the tribe was at war with most of the surrounding peoples, and La Harpe witnesses to the terror in which they were held by the Caddoan tribes. The Illinois were also inveterate enemies, though at one time, when driven west of the Mississippi by the Iroquois, they fled to the Osage for protection. Charlevoix met a party of Osage at the Kaskaskia village on Oct. 20, 1721. Regarding them he wrote: "They depute some of their people once or twice every year to sing the calumet among the Kaskasquias, and they are now actually here at present." The French officer Bossu met some Osage at Cahokia in 1756. About 1802, according to Lewis and Clark, nearly half of the Great Osage under a chief named Big-track migrated to Arkansas river, thus constituting the Arkansas band. The salve explorers (1804) found the Great Osage, numbering about 500 warriors, in a village on the south bank of Osage river, the Little Osage, nearly half as numerous, 6 miles distant, and the Arkansas band, numbering 600 warriors, on Vermilion river, a branch of the Arkansas.

On Nov. 10, 1808, by a treaty with the United States concluded at Ft Clark, Kansas, near Kansas City, Mo., the Osage ceded to the United States all their lands east of a line running due south from Ft Clark to Arkansas river, and also all of their lands west of Missouri river, the whole comprising the larger part of what is now the state of Missouri and the north part of Arkansas. The territory remaining to them, all of the present state of Oklahoma north of Canadian and Arkansas rivers, was still further reduced by the provisions of treaties at St Louis, June 2, 1825; Ft Gibson, Indian Territory, Jan. 11, 1839; and Canville, Kans., Sept. 29, 1865; and the limits of their present reservation were established by act of Congress of July 15, 1870. This consisted (1906) of 1,470,058 acres, and in addition the tribe possessed funds in the Treasury of the United States amounting to $8,562,690, including a school fund of $119,911, the whole yielding an annual income of $428,134. Their income from pasturage leases amounted to $98,376 in the same year, and their total annual income was therefore about $265 per capita, making this tribe the richest in the entire United States. By act of June 28, 1906, an equal division of the lands and funds of the Osage was provided for.

Estimates of Osage population later than that of Lewis and Clark are the following: Sibley, 1,250 men (including 400 Great Osage, 250 Little Osage, and 600 of the Arkansas band); Morse (1821), 5,200 (including 4,200 Great Osage and 1,000 Little Osage) ; Porter (1829), 5,000; U.S. Indian Office (1843), 4,102; Schoolcraft (1853), 3,758 (exclusive of an important division known as Black Dog's band). According to the Indian Office census of 1877, they numbered 3,001; in 1884, 1,547; 1886, 1,582; 1906 (after the division of the tribal lands and trust funds had been provided for), 1,994.

The following villages were occupied by the Osage at different time:

Big Chief,

Black Dog,




Little Osage Village Manhukdhintanwan





Santsepasu Santsukdhin





White Hair Village

The following bands and divisions have not been identified:




•Additional Osage Indian Resources

◦Osage Census Records

The books presented are for their historical value only and are not the opinions of the Webmasters of the site. Handbook of American Indians, 1906
And from American
Black Dog - Osage

« Thread Started on May 25, 2009, 9:26am »


Black Dog I was born circa 1780 near what later became St. Louis, Missouri. Later Black Dog I was named a chief of the Hunkah Division of the Osage tribe which later became known as Black Dog's Band. Their camp was located in the vicinity of where the city of Coffeyville, Kansas, is now located. In 1803 Black Dog I moved his Band to Ho-tsa-Tun-ka (Big Cedar) now Claremore, Oklahoma. However, to end Osage-Cherokee hostilities the U.S. government forced all Osage bands to remove from Arkansas and Oklahoma in 1839. These bands were relocated on the Verdigris River in the Kansas part of Indian Territory, where the Missouri Osage had agreed to settle in 1825. Black Dog I died on 24 March 1848.

Black Dog I had a son born in 1827, now known as Black Dog II. Black Dog II was elected Principal Chief of the Osage in 1880 and died in October 1910.


"The Osage chief Black Dog was born circa 1780 near St. Louis, Missouri. His village, Pasuga (or Big Cedar), was located at present Claremore, Oklahoma. His original name, Zhin-gawa-ca (or Shinka-Wah-Sa), meant Dark Eagle or Sacred Little One. He possibly earned the designation Manka-Chonka or Black Dog against the Comanche. At a Fort Gibson meeting during March 1833, he was called Shonkah-Sabe or Black Horse. An Osage trail in Kansas and Oklahoma was known as the Black Dog Trail. Engineered by Black Dog, it extended from east of present Baxter Springs, Kansas, to the Great Salt Plains in Alfalfa County, Oklahoma. Under his leadership a substantial proportion of the Osage hunted west to the Salt Plains and the upper Arkansas River. It was not uncommon for members of his band to raid, hunt, and trade as far away as Mexico and Santa Fe. Portraits of Black Dog were painted by artists George Catlin in 1834 and John Mix Stanley in 1843. Blind in his left eye, he stood around seven feet tall and weighed an estimated three hundred pounds. His only son, also called Black Dog, was born in 1827 and died in 1910. Black Dog was a contemporary of and shared power with chiefs Claremore and Pawhuska. His political control perhaps extended over a third of the tribe. He was on generally friendly terms with U.S. authorities and occasionally ordered his braves to hunt and scout for American troops. Black Dog died at the present site of Claremore, Oklahoma, on March 24, 1848."

Taken from:


"Techong-ta-saba, or Black Dog I -


A man of six feet six inches in heighth, and well proportioned, weighing some two hundred and fifty pounds, and rather inclined to corpulency. He is blind of an eye. He is celebrated more for his feats in war than as a counsellor; his opinions are, however, sought in all matters of importance appertaining to the welfare of his people. The name, Black Dog, was given to him from a circumstance which happened some years since, when on a war expedition against the Camanches. He with his party, were about to surprise their camp on a very dark night, when a black dog, by his continued barking, kept them at bay. After several ineffectual attempts, being repelled by the dog, Techong-ta-saba became exasperated and fired an arrow at random, hitting him in the head and causing instant death. By this name he is known familiarly to the Officers of the Army and white traders in that section of country. . ."

Taken from:!siaeci&uri=full=3100016~!43766~!0#focus


Black Dog I - Osage (painted by George Catlin) - 1834


Black Dog II and some other Osage joined the 1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. (Confederate States of America) around 1862, under Major Broke Arm. This military unit was composed of three companies. Black Dog served as a Captain of Company B. Military records are incomplete on their activities, but it is believed that this unit was involved at the battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove, both in northwest Arkansas in 1862.


"The various Osage Indian chiefs and leaders did sign a Treaty on 2 October 1861 with Albert Pike, Commissioner of the Confederate States, to support the southern cause. The Osage tribes indicated they would provide at least 500 warriors to serve in the Confederate States Army. The 1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A., was organized with three companies in early 1862. It was sometimes known as Osage Broke Arm's Cavalry Battalion. This military unit did provide some 200 men to serve in the Confederate States Army. It was assigned first to General Ben McCulloch, then later to Brigadier General Douglas H. Cooper in his Cooper's Indian Cavalry Division in 1863-64. The 1st Osage Battalion served under Brigadier General Stand Watie in his First Indian Cavalry Brigade. Surrendered by Brigadier General Stand Watie near Doaksville, Indian Territory, on 23 June 1865.

Raids and Battles:

* Osage Mill and Mission in Kansas: (September, 1861)

* Humboldt, Kansas: ( September, 1861)

* Pea Ridge (6-8 March 1862)

* Prairie Grove


Major Broke Arm, an Osage Indian.

Field Staff:

Captain Louis Pharamond Chouteau, Adjutant, and Osage Interpreter.

Company A:

Captain Augustus Captain (Ogeese Captaine)

1st Lieutenant No-pa-wal-la

2nd Lieutenant Wah-kou-che-la

2nd Lieutenant Sta-lach-la-ton

Company B:

Captain Black Dog (Stdanta-sape)

1st Lieutenant Ne-kar-gah-hee

2nd Lieutenant Wah-sha-sho-wah-ti-in-ga

2nd Lieutenant Wah-cha-o-nso-she

Company C:

Captain Wah-dah-ne-gah

1st Lieutenant No-ne-char-she

2nd Lieutenant Wah-skon-mon-ne

2nd Lieutenant F.A. Lewis"

"Most of the Osages who joined the army of the South were from Black Dog's band that resided on the Verdigris, but Augustus Captaine and some others who lived near the Mission went south. The Black Dog warriors came home before the war was over, but Captaine remained for sometime after the war closed."

"In 1861 there was a man by the name of Dorn who was the Osage Indian agent." says A.T. Dickerman, in the Oswego Democrat. "He had been appointed to the agency by President Buchanan. He was of southern origin and very popular among the Indians. When the war broke out he went with the south and used his infleunce [sic] to take the Osages with him. But old White Hair, head chief of the nation, was a good Catholic and thru the influence of Fr. Schoenmaker, head of the Catholic mission among them, he did all he could to have the Osages remain neutral. But in spite of all he and Little Bear, chief of the Little Osages, could do, the Black Dog band, numbering about 1000, big, little, old and young, went south and joined themselves with the southern confederacy"..."But in about January 1865, they began to tire of the war in which they got no pay, and quit fighting. They came back onto the Verdigris river just below Coody's Bluff and wintered there."

"Augustus was also present at the inception of the Drum Creek treaty, signed May 27, 1868 at the Drum Creek Agency, which was at the confluence of Drum Creek and the Verdigris River. This treaty originally sold a 30 mile strip of land, totaling 8,003,000 acres, known as the Osage Diminished Reserve, to Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston (L.L. & G.) Railway Company for $1,600,000. The government was represented by Alex R. Banks, special U.S. indian agent; George W. Yates, captain Seventh cavalry; M.W. Reynolds, reporter for commission; Charles Robinson, I.S. Kalloch, Moses Neal, W.P. Murphy, and William Babcock. Interpretors for the Osages were Augustus Captain, Alexander Beyett, and Lewis P. Choteau. Chiefs present at the signing included Joseph Paw-ne-no-pashe, White Hair, principal chief; Black Dog, Little Beaver, Nopawalla, Strike Axe, Wayohake, Chetopah, Hard Rope, Watisanka, and Melotumuni. Due to political struggles between the government and the railroads, the original treaty was never ratified as written. In September 1870 the treaty was modified, selling the land to the U.S. government for $1.25 an acre. This was the final treaty which removed the Osage from Kansas to their new home in Oklahoma, then known as Indian Territory."

Taken from:


And From The Oklahoma Division Of The SCV:

Oklahoma Division

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Stand Watie and the Confederate Indians

By John G. Dwyer

Have you ever noticed that some participants in America’s greatest calamity, its War Between the States, are quite familiar to us? Meanwhile, many others of that eventful age are ignored or likely no longer even known by those academics who are the gatekeepers of our national memory. Among the forgotten are the American Indians of the Five "Civilized" Tribes – Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole – most of whom fought for the Confederacy.

Few participants in that war exhibited greater courage, or suffered greater loss, than these long-forgotten patriots, whose blood kin included such distinguished personages as the great Sequoyah (George Gist), who committed the Cherokee language into an alphabet. Their lands and communities in Indian Territory (modern-day Oklahoma), growing and prosperous before the War of 1861–65, lay in rubble and ruin afterwards. These Indians, many of them slaveowners, fit none of the customary American history stereotypes. Throughout their lives, they adhered to many of the core values of America’s Founding Fathers, including a devotion to the Christian faith; commitment to an excellent education distinguished by classical and scriptural distinctives; belief in self-reliant labors and the possession and cultivation of private property; support of the practices of limited government – especially on the national level – and separated powers; and the principles of free market economics, and the creativity and innovation incumbent in that.

Such a man was three-quarter-Cherokee Stand Watie, the only Indian to attain the rank of general in either the Federal orConfederate armies. Born in 1806 near Rome, Georgia, and educated at a Christian church mission school in Tennessee, Watie proved himself a leader even as a young man. A frequent correspondent in the 1830s with President Andrew Jackson (not to be confused with Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson), he recognized that man’s determination to proceed with the ethnic cleansing of the Cherokees from the southeastern United States. For instance, when uninvited white gold-seekers flooded Cherokee land in north Georgia in the early 1830s, the United States Supreme Court ordered the state to protect the mostly-Christian tribe and let them live in peace on their own land. President Jackson famously responded: "The Chief Justice [John Marshall] has made his ruling. Now let him enforce it."

So Stand Watie, divining the imminent slaughter of his people if they did not leave, and seeking to craft the best possible arrangement for them, helped negotiate the 1835 New Echota Treaty between the United States and the Cherokee Nation to which he belonged. He and a couple thousand other Cherokees left soon after for Indian Territory. The majority of Cherokees, however, led by Principal Chief (similar to a President) John Ross, who was 7/8 Scot and 1/8 Cherokee, opposed the New Echota Treaty and the relocation. They remained in their homeland until the U.S. army forcibly uprooted them a couple of years later. Broken promises by President Jackson and other Federal officials turned this phase of the Cherokees’ westward relocation, in 1838-39, into the tragic Trail of Tears. The Cherokees called it, literally, "The Place Where We Cried." Thousands of them, mostly women and children, died in the vast open wilderness amidst a howling winter and sometimes brutal Federal soldiers, en route to their new homeland.

Once there, many of Ross’s followers harbored bitter resentment against Watie and other leaders of what came to be known as the Treaty Party. Within six months of the larger Cherokee party arriving in Indian Territory, every Treaty Party leader except Watie was murdered. He escaped only by a comrade’s warning, his own wits and courage, and the borrowed horse of white Presbyterian missionary friend Samuel Worcester. Years later, Watie and Ross and their two factions made peace, though their variant philosophies would flare again during the War Between the States.


A successful planter and journalist, Watie supported the Confederacy from its start. His influence helped lead the Cherokee nation into a formal alliance with the South. He and many fellow Cherokees, including William Penn Adair, John Drew, and Clem Rogers (father of famous American humorist and motion picture icon Will Rogers), as well as other Indians such as Seminole John Jumper and Creek G. W. Grayson, gained renown for their battle exploits – renown largely ignored in traditional American histories. The hard-riding Clem Rogers, for instance, was one of Watie’s chief cavalry scouts.

After fighting commenced in the (Indian) "Nations," Watie organized and commanded the Cherokee Mounted Rifles. These rough-hewn Oklahoma horse soldiers earned a fearsome reputation, far out of proportion to their numbers, for their accomplishments at such battles as Wilson’s Creek in Missouri and Pea Ridge in Arkansas. At the latter, a subordinate recounted Watie’s mounted Indian troopers, though outnumbered, charging into the face of blazing Federal cannon, capturing them, then turning them on their fleeing Federal enemy: "I don't know how we did it but Watie gave the order, which he always led, and his men could follow him into the very jaws of death. The Indian Rebel Yell was given and we fought like tigers three to one. It must have been that mysterious power of Stand Watie that led us on to make the capture against such odds."

Later, Watie’s legend grew as a guerilla fighter while commanding Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Osage troops. One of his most famous exploits was the capture in a shootout on the Arkansas River of a Federal steamship and its $150,000 cargo. Another was his leading Confederate forces to victory in the Second Battle of Cabin Creek, in Indian Territory, where he captured an enormous Federal wagon train, the booty of which clothed his entire regiment and fed them and their civilian dependants for more than a month.

Tragically, the war forced Watie to fight not only Federal troops, who also included Indians, but some of his own people as well. The majority of the John Ross faction transferred their allegiance to the North when events turned against the Confederacy, and after Ross was captured by the Federals. Watie’s own wife and children had to refugee from northeastern Oklahoma down the Texas Road into North Texas in the cold of winter and live out the war amongst the elements.

Year after year, Federal armies from all over the west hunted Watie. They never caught him. Brigadier General and Cherokee Chief Stand Watie fought to the bitter end. He was the last Confederate general to surrender, undaunted and unvanquished, on June 23, 1865, nearly three months after Appomattox.


Watie returned to financial ruin and a home burned to the ground by Federals during the war. He spent his final years farming and trying to restore his once-beautiful Grand River bottomland, which was devastated by the war. Aging into his mid-sixties, Watie exhausted his war-punished body by committing every talent and meager resource remaining to him to the quality education of his children. Realizing this, one of his daughters, Watica, who had barely learned to read and write during a childhood savaged by the years of total war in the Indian Territory, wrote him from the private school to which he had managed to send her: "I feel proud to think that I have a papa that take the last dollars he has to send me chool."

William Penn Adair

Tragedy continued to mark Watie’s life as his beloved son Saladin – captain, decorated war hero, postwar Southern Cherokee delegate to Congress, and only twenty-one years of age – became the final of his three boys to precede him in death. He also watched as colossal tracts of land legally deeded to the Indians a generation before by the U.S. government, were taken from them as punishment for their support of the Confederacy and given to other tribes; as other vast tracts were confiscated from them and given to the mercantilist railroads racing westward; and as Congress began to levy taxes on Indian Territory business enterprises, while gradually eradicating the Nations’ legally-sanctioned political independence. Tragedy has marked much of the American Indian’s history since then as well, with one of their chief contemporary distinctions being that of helming the largest casino efforts in Oklahoma.

"You can't imagine how lonely I am up here at our old place without any of my dear children being with me," Watie wrote another daughter, Jacqueline, only weeks before his death in 1871. "I would be so happy to have you here, but you must go to school."

Like another fabled Confederate general, Robert E. Lee of Virginia, it was said that Chief Stand Watie died at least partly of a broken heart. Yet Mrs. A. K. Hardcastle wrote to Watie’s widow, the lovely Sarah Bell of Tennessee: "I read with sadness of the death of your much esteemed husband. My tenderest sympathy is yours. I trust you have consolation from a Higher Power than earthly friends for the loss of one so dear to you. His labors on earth have not been in vain, he has done much lasting good for his country and country-men, that will never be forgotten but handed down to the future generations in the book of history for them to follow in his foot-steps and to aspire to leave their foot prints on the sands of time as well as he."

John J. Dwyer is a popular author and speaker and is Adjunct Professor of History at both Southern Nazarene University and Oklahoma City Community College. He is former history chair at a classical college preparatory school, newspaper publisher, and radio host. His books include the new novel When the Bluebonnets Come and the non-fiction historical narrative The War Between the States: America's Uncivil War, both from Bluebonnet Press; the historical novels Stonewall and Robert E. Lee from Broadman & Holman Publishers; the upcoming historical narrative The Oklahomans: The Story of Oklahoma and Its People; and is the former editor and publisher of The Dallas/Fort Worth Heritage newspaper.

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